## Work Done by an External Force

13. Cube Notes (Work done by an external force).pdf

13. CUBE_Concpet based MCQ Work done by external force.pdf

# Exploring Work Done by External Forces: Energy Transfer in Physics

The concept of work done by external forces is pivotal in understanding how energy is transferred within a system. This detailed analysis examines how non-conservative and conservative forces contribute to changes in kinetic and potential energies, elucidating the overall energy dynamics in physical systems.

Understanding Work and Energy Transfer

- Work Done by External Forces
- Work done by external forces involves energy transfer that affects the system's mechanical energy. For instance, when you throw a ball upwards, the force you apply does work, transferring energy to the ball. This work done by the applied force, a non-conservative force, alters both the kinetic and potential energies of the system.
- Energy Changes Due to External Work
- During the ball's ascent, there is a clear increase in kinetic energy (ΔK) and gravitational potential energy (ΔU) of the ball-Earth system. The work done by non-conservative forces (Wnc) and the conservative gravitational force (Wc) together affect the total work done on the system:

- Wnet = Wnc + Wc (Equation 1)

- The relationship between work and energy changes is governed by the work-energy theorem and the conservation of mechanical energy:

- Wnet = ΔK (Equation 2)
- Wc = -ΔU (Equation 3)

- By substituting from equations (2) and (3) into equation (1), we derive:

- ΔK = Wnc - ΔU
- Wnc = ΔK + ΔU

- This shows that the work done by the external force is equal to the sum of the changes in kinetic and potential energies, which effectively represents the change in mechanical energy of the system:

- Wnc = ΔE

- These insights are often summarized in what are termed "energy statements" for work done on a system by an external force.
- Additional Forces: Friction and Its Effects
- Considering a scenario where friction also plays a role, imagine a constant horizontal force F pulling a block, displacing it by d meters and altering its velocity from V₀ to V. Here, kinetic friction (fk) opposes the motion, contributing to the energy dynamics:

- F - fk = ma
- v² = v₀² + 2ad

- Solving for acceleration (a) and substituting back gives:

- Fd = 1/2 m v² - 1/2 m v₀² + fkd

- Recognizing that the change in kinetic energy (ΔK) for the block is 1/2 m v² - 1/2 m v₀², we can rewrite the equation as:

- Fd = ΔK + fkd

- This equation highlights how the applied force's work is partitioned between increasing the block's kinetic energy and overcoming friction, which transforms some of the mechanical energy into thermal energy:

- Fd = ΔK + ΔEth

- Here, ΔEth represents the increase in thermal energy due to friction, and the work done by the force F is:

- Wnc = ΔK + ΔEth

- This is referred to as the "energy statement" for work done on a system by an external force when friction is present. It illustrates the dual role of the applied force—increasing kinetic energy while also converting some energy into heat due to friction.
- Conservation of Energy and System-Wide Changes
- The concept of energy conservation underlies all these processes, asserting that the total energy change in a system is equivalent to the energy transfers occurring within it:

- Wnc = ΔE = ΔE_mec + ΔE_th + ΔE_int

- Where ΔE_mec is the change in mechanical energy, ΔE_th is the change in thermal energy, and ΔE_int represents changes in other forms of internal energy. This formalism underscores that energy in a system is like currency in accounts, transferable but conserved overall.

By integrating these concepts, we gain a comprehensive understanding of how work done by external forces impacts the energy states of physical systems, essential for both conceptual insights and practical applications in physics.

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